Lifting the Veil of Tears
by Ibn Warraq
The following article is from Free
Inquiry magazine, Volume 17, Number 4.
Islam is deeply anti-woman. Islam is the fundamental cause of the repression of Muslim
women and remains the major obstacle to the evolution of their position. Islam has always considered women as creatures
inferior in every way: physically, intellectually, and morally. This negative vision is
divinely sanctioned in the Koran, corroborated by the hadiths, and perpetuated by
the commentaries of the theologians, the custodians of Muslim dogma and ignorance.
Far better for these intellectuals to abandon the religious argument, to reject these
sacred texts, and have recourse to reason alone. They should turn instead to
human rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted on December 10, 1948, by
the General Assembly of the United Nations in Paris and ratified by most Muslim countries)
at no point has recourse to a religious argument. These rights are based on natural
rights, which any adult human being capable of choice has. They are rights that human
beings have simply because they are human beings. Human reason or rationality is the
ultimate arbiter of rights - human rights, the rights of women.
Unfortunately, in practice, in Muslim countries one cannot simply leave the theologians
with their narrow, bigoted world view to themselves. One cannot ignore the ulama,
those learned doctors of Muslim law who by their fatwas or decisions in questions
touching private or public matters of importance regulate the life of the Muslim
community. They still exercise considerable powers of approving or forbidding certain
actions. Why the continuing influence of the mullas?
The Koran remains for all Muslims, not just "fundamentalists," the uncreated
word of God Himself. It is valid for all times and places; its ideas are absolutely true
and beyond all criticism. To question it is to question the very word of God, and hence
blasphemous. A Muslim's duty is to believe it and obey its divine commands.
Several other factors contribute to the continuing influence of the ulama. Any
religion that requires total obedience without thought is not likely to produce people
capable of critical thought, people capable of free and independent thought. Such
a situation is favorable to the development of a powerful "clergy" and is
clearly responsible for the intellectual, cultural, and economic stagnation of several
centuries. Illiteracy remains high in Muslim countries. Historically, as there never was
any separation of state and religion, any criticism of one was seen as a criticism of the
other. Inevitably, when many Muslim countries won independence after the Second World War,
Islam was unfortunately linked with nationalism, which meant that any criticism of Islam
was seen as a betrayal of the newly independent country - an unpatriotic act, an
encouragement to colonialism and imperialism. No Muslim country has developed a stable
democracy; Muslims are being subjected to every kind of repression possible. Under these
conditions healthy criticism of society is not possible, because critical thought and
liberty go together.
The above factors explain why Islam in general and the position of women in particular
are never criticized, discussed, or subjected to deep scientific or skeptical analysis.
All innovations are discouraged in Islam - every problem is seen as a religious problem
rather than a social or economic one.
Islam took the legend of Adam and Eve 
from the Old Testament and adapted it in its own fashion. The creation of mankind from one
person is mentioned in the following suras:
4.1. 0 Mankind! Be careful of your duty to your Lord who created you from a single soul
and from it created its mate and from them twain hath spread abroad a multiple of men and
39.6. He created you from one being, then from that (being) He made its mate.
7.189. He it is who did create you from a single soul and therefrom did make his mate
that he might take rest in her.
From these slender sources Muslim theologians have concluded that man was the original
creation - womankind was created secondarily for the pleasure and repose of man. The
legend was further developed to reinforce the supposed inferiority of women. Finally, the
legend was given a sacred character so that to criticize it was to criticize the very
words of God, which were immutable and absolute. Here is how Muhammad describes women in
general: "Be friendly to women for womankind was created from a rib, but the bent
part of the rib, high up, if you try to straighten it you will break it; if you do
nothing, she will continue to be bent."
God punishes Adam and Eve for disobeying his orders. But there is nothing in the verses
to show that it was Eve (as in the Old Testament) who led Adam astray. And yet Muslim
exegetists and jurists have created the myth of Eve the temptress that has since become an
integral part of Muslim tradition. Muhammad himself is reputed to have said: "If it
had not been for Eve, no woman would have been unfaithful to her husband."
The Islamic tradition also attributes guile and deceit to women and draws its support
from the Koran. Modern Muslim commentators interpret certain verses to show that guile,
deceit, and treachery are intrinsic to a woman's nature. Not only is she unwilling to
change, she is by nature incapable of changing - she has no choice. In attacking the female deities of the
polytheists, the Koran takes the opportunity to malign the female sex further.
4.1 17. They invoke in His stead only females; they pray to none else than Satan, a
53.21-22. Are yours the males and His the females? That indeed were an unfair division!
53.27. Lo! it is those who disbelieve in the Hereafter who name the angels with the
names of females.
Other verses from the Koran also seem of a misogynist tendency.
2.228. Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three (monthly)
courses. And it is not lawful for them that they should conceal that which Allah hath
created in their wombs if they are believers in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands
would do better to take them back in that case if they desire a reconciliation. And they
(women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them in kindness, and men are a degree
above them. Allah is Mighty, Wise.
2.282. But if he who oweth the debt is of low understanding, or weak or unable himself
to dictate, then let the guardian of his interests dictate in (terms of) equity. And call
to witness, from among your men, two witnesses. And if two men be not (at hand) then a man
and two women, of such as ye approve as witnesses, so that if the one erreth (through
forgetfulness) the other will remember.
4.11. Allah chargeth you concerning (the provision for) your children: to the male the
equivalent of the portion of two females.
4.34. Men are in charge of women, because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the
other, and because they spend of their property (for the support of women). So good women
are the obedient, guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. As for those from whom
ye fear rebellion, admonish them and banish them to beds apart; and scourge (beat) them.
Then if they obey you, seek not a way against them Lo! Allah is ever High Exalted, Great.
Equally, in numerous hadiths on which are based the Islamic laws, we learn of
the woman's role - to stay at home, to be at the beck and call of man to obey him (which
is a religious duty), and to assure man a tranquil existence. Here are some examples of
- The woman who dies and with whom the husband is satisfied will go to paradise.
- A wife should never refuse herself to her husband even if it is on the saddle of a
- Hellfire appeared to me in a dream and I noticed that it was above all peopled with
women who had been ungrateful. "Was it toward God that they were ungrateful?"
They had not shown any gratitude toward their husbands for all they had received from
them. Even when all your life you have showered a woman with your largesse she will still
find something petty to reproach you with one day, saying, "You have never done
anything for me."
- If anything presages a bad omen it is: a house, a woman, a horse.
- Never will a people know success if they confide their affairs to a woman.
It will be appropriate to include two quotes from the famous and much revered
philosopher al-Ghazali (1058-1111), whom Professor Montgomery Watt describes as the
greatest Muslim after Muhammad. In his "The Revival Of The Religious Sciences,"
Ghazali defines the woman's role: 
She should stay at home and get on with her spinning, she should not go out often, she
must not be well-informed, nor must she be communicative with her neighbours and only
visit them when absolutely necessary; she should take care of her husband and respect him
in his presence and his absence and seek to satisfy him in everything; she must not cheat
on him nor extort money from him; she must not leave her house without his permission and
if given his permission she must leave surreptitiously. She should put on old clothes and
take deserted streets and alleys, avoid markets, and make sure that a stranger does not
hear her voice or recognize her; she must not speak to a friend of her husband even in
need. ... Her sole worry should be her virtue, her home as well as her prayers and her
fast. If a friend of her husband calls when the latter is absent she must not open the
door nor reply to him in order to safeguard her and her husband's honour. She should
accept what her husband gives her as sufficient sexual needs at any moment. ... She should
be clean and ready to satisfy her husband's sexual needs at any moment.
Such are some of the sayings from the putative golden age of Islamic feminism. It was
claimed that it was the abandonment of the original teachings of Islam that had led to the
present decadence and backwardness of Muslim societies. But there never was an Islamic
utopia. To talk of a golden age is only to conform and perpetuate the influence of the
clergy, the mullas, and their hateful creed that denies humanity to half the inhabitants
of this globe, and further retards all serious attempts to liberate Muslim women.
The inequality between men and women  in
matters of giving testimony or evidence or being a witness is enshrined in the Koran: sura
2.282 (quoted above).
How do Muslim apologists justify the above text? Muslim men and women writers point to
the putative psychological differences that exist between men and women. The Koran (and
hence God) in its sublime wisdom knew that women are sensitive, emotional, sentimental,
easily moved, and influenced by their biological rhythm, lacking judgment. But above all
they have a shaky memory. In other words, women are psychologically inferior. Such are the
dubious arguments used by Muslim intellectuals - male and, astonishingly enough, female
intellectuals like Ahmad Jamal, Ms. Zahya Kaddoura, Ms. Ghada al-Kharsa, and Ms. Madiha
Khamis. As Ghassan Ascha points out, the absurdity of their arguments are obvious.
By taking the testimony of two beings whose reasoning faculties are faulty we do not
obtain the testimony of one complete person with a perfectly functioning rational faculty
- such is Islamic arithmetic! By this logic, if the testimony of two women is worth that
of one man, then the testimony of four women must be worth that of two men, in which case
we can dispense with the testimony of the men. But no! In Islam the rule is not to accept
the testimony of women alone in matters to which men theoretically have access. It is said
that the Prophet did not accept the testimony of women in matters of marriage, divorce,
and hudud. Hudud are the punishments set down by Muhammad in the Koran
and the hadith for (1) adultery - stoning to death; (2) fornication - a hundred
stripes; (3) false accusation of adultery against a married person - eighty stripes; (4)
apostasy - death; (5) drinking wine - eighty stripes; (6) theft - the cutting off of the
right hand; (7) simple robbery on the highway - the loss of hands and feet; robbery with
murder - death, either by the sword or by crucifixion.
On adultery the Koran 24.4 says: "Those that defame honourable women and cannot
produce four witnesses shall be given eighty lashes." Of course, Muslim jurists will
only accept four male witnesses. These witnesses must declare that they have "seen
the parties in the very act of carnal conjunction." Once an accusation of fornication
and adultery has been made, the accuser himself or herself risks punishment if he or she
does not furnish the necessary legal proofs. Witnesses are in the same situation. If a man
were to break into a woman's dormitory and rape half a dozen women, he would risk nothing
since there would be no male witnesses. Indeed the victim of a rape would hesitate before
going in front of the law, since she would risk being condemned herself and have little
chance of obtaining justice. "If the woman's words were sufficient in such
cases," explains Judge Zharoor ul Haq of Pakistan, "then no man would be
safe." This iniquitous situation is truly revolting and yet for Muslim law it is a
way of avoiding social scandal concerning the all-important sexual taboo. Women found
guilty of fornication were literally immured, at first; as the Koran 4.15 says: "Shut
them up within their houses till death release them, or God make some way for them."
However this was later canceled and stoning substituted for adultery and one hundred
lashes for fornication. When a man is to be stoned to death, he is taken to some barren
place, where he is stoned first by the witnesses, then the judge, and then the public.
When a woman is stoned, a hole to receive her is dug as deep as her waist - the Prophet
himself seems to have ordered such procedure. It is lawful for a man to kill his wife and
her lover if he catches them in the very act.
In the case where a man suspects his wife of adultery or denies the legitimacy of the
offspring, his testimony is worth that of four men. Sura 24.6: "If a man
accuses his wife but has no witnesses except himself, he shall swear four times by God
that his charge is true, calling down upon himself the curse of God if he is lying. But if
his wife swears four times by God that his charge is false and calls down His curse upon
herself if it be true, she shall receive no punishment." Appearances to the contrary,
this is not an example of Koranic justice or equality between the sexes. The woman indeed
escapes being stoned to death but she remains rejected and loses her right to the dowry
and her right to maintenance, whatever the outcome of the trial. A woman does not
have the right to charge her husband in a similar manner. Finally, for a Muslim marriage
to be valid there must be a multiplicity of witnesses. For Muslim jurists, two men form a
multiplicity but not two or three or a thousand women.
In questions of heritage, the Koran tells us that male children should inherit twice
the portion of female children:
4.11-12. A male shall inherit twice as much as a female. If there be more than two
girls, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance, but if there be one only, she shall
inherit the half. Parents shall inherit a sixth each, if the deceased have a child; but if
he leave no child and his parents be his heirs, his mother shall have a third. If he have
brothers, his mother shall have a sixth after payment of any legacy he may have bequeathed
or any debt he may have owed.
To justify this inequality, Muslim authors lean heavily on the fact that a woman
receives a dowry and has the right to maintenance from her husband. It is also true that
according to Muslim law the mother is not at all obliged to provide for her children, and
if she does spend money on her children, it is, to quote Bousquet, "recoverable by
her from her husband if he is returned to a better fortune as in the case of any other
charitable person. Therefore there is no point in the husband and wife sharing in the
taking charge of the household; this weighs upon the husband alone. There is no longer any
financial interest between them." 
This latter point referred to by Bousquet simply emphasizes the negative aspects of a
Muslim marriage - that is to say, the total absence of any idea of "association"
between "couples" as in Christianity. As to dowry, it is, of course, simply a
reconfirmation of the man's claims over the woman in matters of sex and divorce.
Furthermore, in reality the woman does not get to use the dowry for herself. The custom is
either to use the dowry to furnish the house of the newly married couple or for the wife
to offer it to her father. According to the Malekites, the woman can be obliged by law to
use the dowry to furnish the house. Muslim law also gives the guardian the right to cancel
a marriage - even that of a woman of legal age - if he thinks the dowry is not sufficient.
Thus the dowry, instead of being a sign of her independence, turns out once more to be a
symbol of her servitude.
The woman has the right to maintenance but this simply emphasizes her total dependence
on her husband, with all its attendant sense of insecurity. According to Muslim jurists,
the husband is not obliged under Islamic law to pay for her medical expenses in case of
illness. Financial independence of the woman would of course be the first step in the
liberation of Muslim women and thus it is not surprising that it is seen as a threat to
male dominance. Muslim women are now obliged to take equal responsibility for looking
after their parents. Article 158 of Syrian law states "The child - male or female -
having the necessary means is obliged to take responsibility for his or her poor
parents." The birth of a girl is still seen as a catastrophe in Islamic societies.
The system of inheritance just adds to her misery and her dependence on the man. If she is
an only child she receives only half the legacy of her father; the other half goes to the
male members of the father's family. If there are two or more daughters, they inherit
two-thirds. This pushes fathers and mothers to prefer male children to female so that they
can leave the entirety of their effects or possessions to their own descendants. "Yet
when a new-born girl is announced to one of them his countenance darkens and he is filled
with gloom" (sura 43.15). The situation is even worse when a woman loses her
husband - she only receives a quarter of the legacy. If the deceased leaves more than one
wife, all the wives are still obliged to share among themselves a quarter or one-eighth of
Muslim jurists  are unanimous in their
view that men are superior to women in virtue of their reasoning abilities, their
knowledge, and their supervisory powers. And since it is the man who assumes financial
responsibility for the family, it is argued, it is natural that he should have total power
over the woman. These same jurists, of course, totally neglect changing social conditions
where a woman may contribute her salary to the upkeep of her family - power over women
remains a divine command and "natural" or "in the nature of things."
Muslim thinkers continue to confine Muslim women to the house - to leave the house is
against the will of God and against the principles of Islam. Confined to their houses,
women are then reproached for not having any experience of the outside world!
According to theologians,  the husband
has the right to administer corporal punishment to his wife if she
- Refuses to make herself beautiful for him;
- Refuses to meet his sexual demands;
- Leaves the house without permission or without any legitimate reason recognized by law;
- Neglects her religious duties.
A hadith attributes the following saying to the Prophet: "Hang up your
whip where your wife can see it." There are a number of other hadiths that
contradict this one. In those, Muhammad explicitly forbids men to beat their wives - in
which case the Prophet himself is contradicting what the Koran, enshrining divine law,
Case Histories: The Women of Pakistan
In Pakistan in 1977, General Zia al-Haq took over in a military coup declaring that the
process of Islamization was not going fast enough. The mullas had finally got
someone who was prepared to listen to them.
Zia imposed martial law, total press censorship, and began creating a theocratic state,
believing that Pakistan ought to have "the spirit of Islam." He banned women
from athletic contests and even enforced the Muslim fast during the month of Ramadan at
gunpoint. He openly admitted that there was a contradiction between Islam and democracy.
Zia introduced Islamic laws that discriminated against women. The most notorious of these
laws were the Zina and Hudud Ordinances that called for the Islamic
punishments of the amputation of hands for stealing and stoning to death for married
people found guilty of illicit sex. The term zina included adultery, fornication,
and rape, and even prostitution. Fornication was punished with a maximum of a hundred
lashes administered in public and ten years' imprisonment.
In practice, these laws protect rapists, for a woman who has been raped often finds
herself charged with adultery or fornication. To prove zina, four Muslim adult
males of good repute must be present to testify that sexual penetration has taken place.
Furthermore, in keeping with good Islamic practice, these laws value the testimony of men
over women. The combined effect of these laws is that it is impossible for a woman to
bring a successful charge of rape against a man; instead, she herself, the victim, finds
herself charged with illicit sexual intercourse, while the rapist goes free. If the rape
results in a pregnancy, this is automatically taken as an admission that adultery or
fornication has taken place with the woman's consent rather than that rape has occurred.
Here are some sample cases. 
In a town in the northern province of Punjab, a woman and her two daughters were
stripped naked, beaten, and gangraped in public, but the police declined to pursue the
A thirteen-year-old girl was kidnapped and raped by a "family friend." When
her father brought a case against the rapist, it was the girl who was put in prison and
charged with zina, illegal sexual intercourse. The father managed to secure the
child's release by bribing the police. The traumatized child was then severely beaten for
disgracing the family honor.
A fifty-year-old widow, Ahmedi Begum, 
decided to let some rooms in her house in the city of Lahore to two young veiled women. As
she was about to show them the rooms, the police burst into the courtyard of the house and
arrested the two girls and Ahmedi Begum's nephew, who had simply been standing there.
Later that afternoon, Ahmedi Begum went to the police station with her son-in-law to
inquire about her nephew and the two girls. The police told Ahmedi they were arresting her
too. They confiscated her jewelry and pushed her into another room. While she was waiting,
the police officers shoved the two girls, naked and bleeding, into the room and then
proceeded to rape them again in front of the widow. When Ahmedi covered her eyes, the
police forced her to watch by pulling her arms to her sides. After suffering various
sexual humiliations, Ahmedi herself was stripped and raped by one officer after another.
They dragged her outside where she was again beaten. One of the officers forced a
policeman's truncheon, covered with chili paste, into her rectum, rupturing it. Ahmedi
screamed in horrible agony and fainted, only to wake up in prison, charged with zina.
Her case was taken up by a human rights lawyer. She was released on bail after three
months in prison, but was not acquitted until three years later. In the meantime, her
son-in-law divorced her daughter because of his shame.
Was this an isolated case? Unfortunately no. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan
said in its annual report that one woman is raped every three hours in Pakistan and one in
two rape victims is a juvenile. According to Women's Action Forum, a woman's rights
organization, 72% of all women in police custody in Pakistan are physically and sexually
abused. Furthermore, 75% of all women in jail are there under charges of zina.
Many of these women remain in jail awaiting trial for years.
In other words, the charge of zina is casually applied by any man who wants to
get rid of his wife, who is immediately arrested, and kept waiting in prison, sometimes
for years. Before the introduction of these laws the total number of women in prison was
70; the present number is more than 3,000. Most of these women have been charged under the
Zina or Hudud Ordinances. 
The Western press naively believed that the election of Benazir Bhutto as Pakistan's
prime minister in November 1988 would revolutionize women's role not just in Pakistan, but
in the entire Islamic world. Under Islamic law of course, women cannot be head of an
Islamic state, and Pakistan had become an Islamic republic under the new constitution of
1956. Thus, Benazir Bhutto had defied the mullas and won. But her government
lasted a bare 20 months, during which period Nawaz Sharif, who was the prime minister
briefly in the early 1990s, is said to have encouraged the mullas in their
opposition to having a woman as the head of an Islamic state. Benazir Bhutto's government
was dismissed on charges of corruption, and her husband imprisoned in 1990.
The lot of the Muslim woman was harsh before Benazir's election, and nothing has
changed. She has pandered to the religious lobby, the mullas, the very people who insist
that a woman cannot hold power in an Islamic state, and has repeatedly postponed any
positive action on the position of women.
Pakistan shows the same grim picture. Pakistan is one of only four countries in the
world where female life expectancy (51 years) is lower than the male (52 years); the
average female life expectancy for all poor countries is 61 years. A large number of
Pakistani women die in pregnancy or childbirth, six for every 1,000 live births. Despite
the fact that contraception has never been banned by orthodox Islam, under Zia the Islamic
Ideology Council of Pakistan declared family planning to be un-Islamic. Various mullas
condemned family planning as a Western conspiracy to emasculate Islam. As a result, the
average fertility rate per woman in Pakistan is 6.9. Pakistan is also among the world's
bottom ten countries for female attendance at primary schools. Some people put female
literacy in the rural areas as low as 2% (Economist, March 5, 1994). As the Economist
put it, "Some of the blame for all this lies with the attempt of the late President
Zia ul Haq to create an Islamic republic. ... Zia turned the clock back. A 1984 law of
his, for instance, gives a woman's legal evidence half the weight of a man's" (Economist,
January 13, 1990).
Indeed a large part of the blame lies with the attitudes inculcated by Islam, which has
always seen woman as inferior to man. The birth of a baby girl is the occasion for
mourning. Hundreds of baby girls are abandoned every year in the gutters and dust bins and
on the pavements. An organization working in Karachi to save these children has calculated
that more than five hundred children are abandoned a year in Karachi alone, and that 99%
of them are girls. 
Little did Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, realize how literally true his words were
when he said in a 1944 speech:  "No
nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. We are
victims of evil customs. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within
the four walls of the houses as prisoners."
But we do not need to leave with a completely pessimistic picture. Pakistani women have
shown themselves to be very courageous, and more and more are fighting for their rights
with the help of equally brave organizations such as Women's Action Forum (WAF) and War
Against Rape. WAF was formed in 1981 as women came onto the streets to protest against the
Hudud Ordinances, and to demonstrate their solidarity with a couple who had
recently been sentenced to death by stoning for fornication. In 1983, women organized the
first demonstrations against martial law.
- Ghassan Ascha, Du Statut Inferieur de la Femme en Islam (Paris: 1989) p. 11.
- Ibid., pp. 23f.
- Ibid., pp. 29f.
- Ibid., p. 41.
- Ascha, op. cit., pp. 63f.
- G. H. Bousquet, L'Ethique sexuelle de L'Islam (Paris: 1966) vol. 1, p. 120.
- Ascha, op. cit., p. 89.
- Ibid., pp. 108.
- Kurt Schork, "Pakistan's Women in Despair," Guardian Weekly,
September 23, 1990.
- Jan Goodwin, Price of Honor (Boston: 1994) p. 49-50.
- Schork, op. cit.
- Goodwin, op. cit., p. 64.
- R. Ahmed, ed., Sayings of Quaid-i-Azam (Jinnah) (Karachi: 1986) p. 98.
Excerpted from Why I Am Not a Muslim by Ibn Warraq (Prometheus Books, 1995).
Ibn Warraq, who was raised as a Muslim, now devotes himself to the scholarly
examination of the beliefs and practices of Islam. He is the author of Why I Am Not
a Muslim (Prometheus Books, 1995).